Many people will eventually become unable to walk. Low back pain is a common symptom. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2014.04.011. Guglieri M, Straub V, Bushby K, Lochmüller H. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. Most people with this form of muscular dystrophy first develop weakness around their hips and shoulders. 2016;2(3):185–194. It mainly affects boys, and starts between ages 3 and 5. Physical Therapy, Surgery, Medication, and More. Overall muscle weakness is also less severe than that of DMD. Toussaint M, Davidson Z, Bouvoie V, Evenepoel N, Haan J, Soudon P. Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: practical recommendations to guide management. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy typically strikes during adolescence or young adulthood. The muscular dystrophies: from genes to therapies. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2019. 2008;5(4):601-6. Disabil Rehabil. Muscular dystrophy (MD) is often considered one disease that presents in a classic way. Below are the symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the most common form of the disease. This form of muscular dystrophy starts with muscle weakness in the face and then moves on to the feet and hands. Myotonic dystrophy. Merosin surrounds muscle fibers to protect them from damage or injury. Myotonic dystrophy is the most common adult form of muscular dystrophy. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2019. Most people with this form of muscular dystrophy first develop weakness around their hips and shoulders. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy causes weakness in your facial, neck, and shoulder muscles. By subscribing you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Muscular dystrophies are inherited muscular disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness eventually leading to death. It causes an inability to relax muscles following a sudden contraction as well as: Some types of myotonic dystrophy may also affect the heart, eyes, pancreas, and other organs. Other types don't surface until adulthood.There's no cure … MD can lead to changes in the brain that lead to learning disabilities. Acta Myol. Symptoms of DMD and muscular dystrophy in children may include: Like DMD, Becker muscular dystrophy is also caused by dystrophin deficiency. Gene therapy is poised to revolutionize how Duchenne is treated, but there are still some problems with this approach that need to be solved. However, as the muscles begin to weaken, pain occur when muscles are overworked and overused to do simple things that weren't a problem before. Another type of muscular dystrophy that may strike adults is facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD). Although the signs and symptoms of muscular dystrophy vary from type to type, there are some common characteristics shared among them. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) comprises a group of inherited muscle-wasting diseases. Steroid therapy is a standard treatment for Duchenne, while other treatments will depend on your specific symptoms and condition. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common childhood form of muscular dystrophy, with symptoms typically beginning between ages 2 and 6. 2013;19(6 Muscle Disease):1535-70. Read our, Medically reviewed by Shaheen Lakhan, MD, PhD, Medically reviewed by Nicholas R. Metrus, MD, Medically reviewed by Stuart Hershman, MD, Medically reviewed by Casey Gallagher, MD, Medically reviewed by Anita C. Chandrasekaran, MD, MPH, Medically reviewed by Robert Burakoff, MD, MPH, Medically reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD, Medically reviewed by Jonathan Cluett, MD, Medically reviewed by Diana Apetauerova, MD. Published 2015 Feb 3. doi:10.3402/jchimp.v5.25319. Progressive muscle weakness is common among all types of MD, but it's important to look at each uniquely to understand exactly how this impacts an individual. To assist with breathing, some people will need to use a ventilator. Not all congenital forms of MD (those present at birth) have been identified. In general, talk to your doctor if you notice signs of muscle weakness — such as clumsiness or falling — in yourself or your child. How Is Muscular Dystrophy Diagnosed? They may be unable to walk within 20 years of being diagnosed. Ann Gastroenterol. Thornton CA. Werling S, Schrank B, Eckardt AJ, Hauburger A, Deschauer M, Müller M. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy as a rare cause of dysphagia. Benign muscular dystrophy with contractures: a new syndrome?. People with FSH MD have shoulders that slope forward, making it difficult to raise their arms over their head. 2005;85(12):1372–1388. As its name suggests, the disease primarily affects muscles of the hips and shoulders, resulting in gradual muscle weakness in those areas. RELATED: Your Everyday Guide to Living Well With Muscular Dystrophy. The disorders differ in which muscles are primarily affected, the degree of weakness, how fast they worsen, and when symptoms begin. Low back pain is a common symptom. There are nine main forms of MD. DMD worsens more rapidly than other types of … Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD) Signs and Symptoms Major clinical features of LGMDs are progressive weakness and muscle atrophy mainly involving the shoulder girdle (scapulohumeral type), the pelvic girdle (pelvifemoral type), or both. It’s typically diagnosed in children ages 3 to 5, and it progresses rapidly, eventually leaving those diagnosed unable to walk by their early teens and, later, requiring a respirator to breathe. 2015;28(2):291–293. Some forms of muscular dystrophy are diagnosed in infancy or childhood, while the symptoms of others may not start in adults until they reach middle age. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic condition characterized by progressive weakening of voluntary muscles. The different types of muscular dystrophy can vary in terms of who they affect, which muscles they affect, and what their symptoms are. How Is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Diagnosed? Mobility becomes challenging, and some people may need an assistive device, like a cane, walker, or wheelchair, to walk. However, roughly one-half of all cases of the disorder in the United States involve merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A), which is caused by a defect in the protein merosin, according to the MDA. Vincent Iannelli, MD, is a board-certified pediatrician and fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics. © 1996-2021 Everyday Health, Inc. This form progresses slowly. While progressive muscle weakness and difficulty controlling movement are present in all nine forms of the disease, there are nuances in the symptoms experienced and the extent of them that depend on what type someone has.. Babies with congenital muscular dystrophy may require support to sit or stand and may never learn to walk. An electrode needle is inserted into the muscle to be tested. [Updated 2019 Jun 4]. 2015;24(5):1267-79. Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. As a result, the child falls frequently and has difficulty getting up from the ground. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1436/. One form, Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, causes severe weakness of the facial muscles and limbs and may include joint contractures, mental and speech problems, as well as seizures. Muscular dystrophy is a group of genetic disorders that cause progressive muscle weakness and loss of muscle mass, primarily in the skeletal muscles, such as those in the arms and legs… Symptoms & Forms of Muscular Dystrophy Muscular dystrophy is mainly characterized by a wasting away of the muscle tissue in the body as well as the breakdown of nerve tissue in certain areas. A rare condition and a group of congenital diseases that causes mutilation and muscle weakness is called muscle dystrophy. Early signs of the illness include a delay in walking, difficulty rising from a sitting or lying position, and frequent falling, with weakness typically affecting the shoulder and pelvic muscle as one of the initial symptoms. This Doctor Discussion Guide has been sent to {{form.email}}. The child also has trouble walking or running normally. In a person who hasn't had a traumatic injury, high blood levels of CK suggest a muscle disease — such as muscular dystrophy. It’s caused by a deficiency in the protein dystrophin, which helps strengthen muscle fibers and protect them from injury, the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) says. It mostly affects boys, though girls may be mildly affected. Hum Mol Genet. Your doctor is likely to start with a medical history and physical examination.After that, your doctor may recommend: 1. Muscle weakness remains the prime symptom of muscular dystrophy. Venugopal V, Pavlakis S. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. 1. Contractures can be painful and pose another obstacle to mobility. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect. Almost exclusively affect boys. It typically affects teens, although it may occur in adults up to 40 years old. doi:10.21037/jss.2016.08.05, Khalighi K, Kodali A, Thapamagar SB, Walker SR. Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy. 2016;38(20):2052-62. Muscular dystrophy causes progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. If you have MD and you experience a new onset of symptoms, consult with your healthcare provider to ensure you receive the care you need. doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103387, Ⓒ 2021 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors. Intellect isn’t affected in this disease. Myotonic MD affects the central nervous system, heart, digestive tract, eyes, and endocrine glands. Track the Vax: Delivering COVID-19 Vaccines at Warp Speed. The age of onset varies as well. Muscular Dystrophy Association Australia website. 2016;53(3):145–151. Certain types of MD may affect the eyes, gastrointestinal tract, or other organs in the body, causing related concerns. 2. Curr Opin Neurol. Muscular dystrophy causes the gradual weakening of skeletal muscle. Muscular Dystrophy treatment with stem cells has shown the potential of repair and regeneration of the damaged muscular tissues. Some children with congenital muscular dystrophy die in infancy, but others live into adulthood with only mild disability. Sign up for our Healthy Living Newsletter! Eventually, DMD affects all the muscles in the body, including the heart and breathing muscles. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors. There is some variation in the degree of muscle weakness, what muscles are affected, and the progression of the disease. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the management of scoliosis, Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy, Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: practical recommendations to guide management, Learning disabilities in neuromuscular disorders: a springboard for adult life, The importance of genetic diagnosis for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Difficulty getting up from a sitting or lying down; "walking" one's hands up the legs to get to a standing position (the Gower maneuver), Standing and walking with the chest and stomach stuck out. Electromyography. Nicolas A, Raguénès-nicol C, Ben yaou R, et al. FSH MD can range from very mild to severe. There also is some weakness of arm and neck muscles. In: StatPearls [Internet]. The condition usually progresses slowly, but most people will eventually become severely disabled due to muscle damage. The disease quickly progresses to more obvious muscle degeneration. The muscular dystrophies. Claudia Chaves, MD, is board-certified in cerebrovascular disease and neurology with a subspecialty certification in vascular neurology. Your Everyday Guide to Living Well With Muscular Dystrophy, Actor and Comedian With Muscular Dystrophy Works to Open Doors for More Disabled Stories, Speaking Muscular Dystrophy: A Glossary of Terms Used to Describe Symptoms, Tests, Treatments, and More, What You Need to Know About Pregnancy and Muscular Dystrophy, Adaptive Techniques and Devices for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Support and Resources for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, What You Need to Know About Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy, How Is Muscular Dystrophy Treated? Becker muscular dystrophy is very similar to DMD, except that the symptoms of Becker MD can appear later in youth—up until as late as 25. Although similar to DMD, symptoms of Becker MD progress slower than those of DMD. Typically, the first symptom of distal muscular dystrophy (DD) is weakness in the distal muscles — those farthest away from the hips and shoulders such as those in the hands, feet, lower arms or lower legs. Continuum (Minneap Minn). Muscular dystrophy is usually diagnosed in children between 3 and 6 years of age. When the disease first appears, it causes general weakness, intolerance to exercise and stiffness of gait. Muscular dystrophy is defined as a group of genetic diseases indicated by progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. Neurotherapeutics. There are two main types of muscular dystrophy. Acta Neurol Scand. Steve Way advocates for universal healthcare, disability rights, and more film roles for disabled actors.  No matter what your level of disability, a yoga practice is possible and offers mental and physical benefits.  This quick alphabetical guide will help you feel more confident when talking about muscular dystrophy with your doctor and loved ones. 2016;35(2):90–95. What Are the Causes of Muscular Dystrophy? Despite the progressive muscle weakness, many people with FSH MD are still able to walk. Muscular Dystrophy Symptoms and Treatment Muscular dystrophy is a group of genetic conditions in which muscles become weak and wasted. It progresses slowly, with the amount of muscle weakness varying from mild to severe. Dr. Iannelli has cared for children for more than 20 years. Becker muscular dystrophy is like Duchenne, except milder. Tawil R. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy isn’t one disorder, but rather a group of more than 30 types of genetic conditions that cause progressive muscle weakness and loss. There are actually more than 30 subtypes of congenital muscular dystrophy. COVID-19 Not Associated with Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Research Finds, Some Babies Are Born Weak Due to a Genetic Mutation — Here's Why, Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of Myasthenia Gravis, Muscular System Diseases and How They Affect Muscles, Dysphagia Can Be a Result of GERD and Other Conditions, Everything You Need To Know About Juvenile Myositis, When a Pain in the Neck Could Be Osteoarthritis, Get Info on the Causes, Prevention and Reversal of Muscle Atrophy, How Rheumatoid Arthritis Affects Different Body Systems, The Difference Between Bell's Palsy and Stroke, Ways to Stay Active With Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy severity is linked to the structure of dystrophin, Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy as a rare cause of dysphagia, The muscular dystrophies: from genes to therapies. Symptoms of Other Types of Muscular Dystrophy: Facioscapulohumeral muscle dystrophy (also called Landouzy-Dejerine muscle dystrophy): Symptoms affect mostly the upper body and face. 10  These diseases, including subforms Welander, Maskesbery-Griggs, Nonaka, and Miyoshi, are less severe and involve … 2004 Sep 29 [Updated 2019 Aug 15]. The accompanying rundown remembers the most well-known signs and … As a result, most people with muscular dystrophy eventually lose the ability to walk. The main sign of all forms of muscular dystrophy is the steady progression of muscle weakness. Enzyme tests. Children who develop DMD usually begin experiencing weakness in their upper legs and pelvis. Muscle pain and stiffness are other symptoms of muscular dystrophy, although they can also be attributed to many other less serious conditions. Emery-Dreiffuss muscular dystrophy: It … The absence of this protein is linked with so many problems. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy? People with FSHD may have: The condition may also cause a curvature in the spine, called lordosis. A protein known as dystrophin is essential for the normal functioning of muscles, the deficiency of this protein weakens the muscles and their working. Archer JE, Gardner AC, Roper HP, Chikermane AA, Tatman AJ. So, as a child grows older, symptoms may grow to include fatigue, heart problems due to an enlarged heart, weakness in the arms and hands, and loss of ability to walk by age 12. As weakness in the muscles of the trunk, or midsection, progresses, breathing difficulties will likely develop; in some cases, they may be life-threatening. Drooping eyelids are typically the first sign of this form of dystrophy. The condition then progresses to facial muscle weakness and difficulty swallowing. The symptoms of muscular dystrophy typically begin early in life, when puppies are about eight weeks old. Some people will have difficulty eating and swallowing, which can lead to nutritional deficiencies or aspiration pneumonia. Wicklund MP. J Med Genet. The most of this condition is Duchenne. Becker muscular dystrophy severity is linked to the structure of dystrophin. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1206/, Bonne G, Leturcq F, Ben Yaou R. Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy. However, unlike DMD, contractures—muscle shortening—may appear earlier in life. The common type of muscular dystrophy that causes serious disability from early childhood. Symptoms of the most common variety begin in childhood, mostly in boys. There are about 30 types of muscular dystrophy whose symptoms and severity vary from one condition to another. However, all forms of muscular dystrophy become increasingly worse, or progress — meaning your muscles get weaker the longer you have the condition. 1986;73(4):439-43. With time, other muscle groups may become affected as well. Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention, Difficulty getting up from a lying or sitting position, Limited movement at certain joints (called contracture), Muscle weakness in the trunk, arms, and legs, Difficulty rising from a lying or sitting position, Learning disabilities in some but not all children, Later onset of symptoms (twenties and thirties), Muscle weakness starts in the arms and later affects the legs and sometimes facial muscles, Problems with motor function and muscle control, Chronic shortening of muscles or tendons around joints (contractures), which prevents joints from moving freely, Difficulty opening and shutting their eyes, Muscle wasting that causes their shoulders to appear slanted, “Popeye arms” because of muscle atrophy of the upper arm and sparing of the forearm muscles, Difficulty swallowing, chewing, or speaking. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. Certain types of MD may cause the heart to work less efficiently, and some people may require pacemaker or defibrillator placement. Living with or having a child with Duchenne can be difficult, but resources are available to give you practical support and help you feel less alone. Benign muscular dystrophy with contractures: a new syndrome? The disease causes muscle weakness that starts in the hips, moves to the shoulders, and extends outwards into the arms and legs. The disease progresses slowly but eventually leads to difficulty walking. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the management of scoliosis. Leg muscles become increasingly weaker. Myotonic MD also causes myotonia—the prolonged stiffening of muscles (like spasms), and it’s a symptom that only occurs in this form of the disease. Everyday Health is among the federally registered trademarks of Everyday Health, Inc. and may not be used by third parties without explicit permission. Contractures (limited movement at the joints), breathing issues, and heart problems may also occur in some individuals. Most people with myotonic dystrophy are diagnosed in their twenties or thirties. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy: It is the rare form of muscular dystrophy that affects the muscles in the eyelid and throat. Handb Clin Neurol. However, it tends to be less severe and progress more slowly than DMD, and is usually diagnosed in teens and young adults. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal genes (mutations) interfere with the production of proteins needed to form healthy muscle.There are many different kinds of muscular dystrophy. Aartsma-Rus A, Ginjaar IB, Bushby K. The importance of genetic diagnosis for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe form of muscular dystrophy in children, accounting for more than one-half of all cases of the disorder in this age group. The symptoms such as droopy eyelids and difficulty swallowing usually appear between the 40s and 60s. Congenital muscular dystrophy refers to a subset of muscular dystrophies that are apparent at or closely following birth. A diagnosis of canine muscular dystrophy is derived from symptoms and abnormalities seen in testing. Some forms of MD become apparent in infancy or early childhood, while others don't appear until middle age or later. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482346/. J Spine Surg. The muscle diseases defined as distal muscular dystrophy have similar symptoms of weakness of the forearms, hands, lower legs, and feet. Chaos at the Capital: How Do You Cope When You Witness Violence and Trauma — Even From Afar? Muscle weakness with FSHD usually begins in the face, hip, and shoulders, affecting the eyes and mouth. 2011;101:239-62. A doctor may use the following steps to diagnose muscular dystrophy in children : Physical examination: The doctor will examine the symptoms of the child. Damaged muscles release enzymes, such as creatine kinase (CK), into your blood. Other common signs of muscular dystrophy include: Scoliosis (sideways curved spine) The muscle diseases defined as distal muscular dystrophy have similar symptoms of weakness of the forearms, hands, lower legs, and feet. These diseases, including subforms Welander, Maskesbery-Griggs, Nonaka, and Miyoshi, are less severe and involve fewer muscles than other types of muscular dystrophy. As muscles further weaken, several complications can occur: If you or your child exhibits signs of muscle weakness, such as falling, dropping things, or overall clumsiness, it’s time to see your doctor for an exam and appropriate testing and diagnostic procedures.. Lovering RM, Porter NC, Bloch RJ. 2006 Jan 26 [Updated 2019 Jul 3]. GeneReviews® [Internet]. The calf muscles gradually get larger, even as the legs become weaker. Tippi Coronavirus: Tips for Living With COVID-19. Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSH MD). 2008;21(5):576-84. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. People usually get one of nine major forms of the disease: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form. Muscle weakness continues throughout the body as the disease progresses. Therefore, the doctor may ask the child to perform some actions. Get our printable guide for your next doctor's appointment to help you ask the right questions. Depending on what type of muscular dystrophy you have — and the age at which you’re diagnosed — you may experience some of the following symptoms: Earlier-onset forms of muscular dystrophy are also associated with developmental delays and intellectual disability. While there may certainly be other, more likely explanations for what you're noticing, it is best to have a professional weigh in. Bailey RO, Dentinger MP, Toms ME, Hans MB. Serious heart problems associated with Emery-Dreifuss MD may require a pacemaker. Still, some people with the condition have mild cases that progress more slowly, while others quickly become severe and disabling. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Neurol Clin. Depending on the type, the onset of disease varies. Muscle weakness often affects the legs and pelvis, and slowly gets worse. Becker muscular dystrophy causes similar symptoms as DMD, with a couple of typical differences: Some people with Becker muscular dystrophy may never need to use a wheelchair, while others lose the ability to walk during their teens, mid-thirties, or later. 2015;5(1):25319. 2014;32(3):705–viii. Learning disabilities in neuromuscular disorders: a springboard for adult life. Current treatments can prolong lifespan by 2-4 years, but symptoms progress nonetheless and the therapies have negative side effects. Side effects. Symptoms of MD vary according to the specific form of illness. Muscular dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of genetic diseases described by progressive dysfunction and/or weakness of skeletal muscles. Children with muscular dystrophy have trouble performing simple tasks. Each kind of muscular dystrophy is caused by a genetic mutation specific to that type of disease. It affects boys and girls equally. Udd B. Distal muscular dystrophies. After initial blood tests, your doctor will order a genetic test for Duchenne if the condition is suspected. Different Names: Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne; DMD; Muscular dystrophy, pseudohypertrophic reformist, Duchenne type Classes: Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases; Eye infections; See More This infection is gathered under Muscular dystrophy. Over time, affected people begin to have difficulty walking, frequent falls, difficulty with muscle skills (such as running, hopping, and jumping), and loss of muscle mass. The leading tests for a positive diagnosis are a microscopic evaluation of muscle tissue fibers from a biopsy, and an immunohistochemical staining test. DMD is more common in boys, although girls are also mildly affected. What Are the Best Treatment Options for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy? Muscular dystrophy(MD) is a group of muscle diseasesthat results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal musclesover time. It can cause potentially life-threatening complications due to the weakening of the heart and muscles involved in breathing. Adult form of muscular dystrophy with contractures: a springboard for adult life distal... What are the signs and symptoms of weakness, how fast they,! Variation in the body, causing related concerns Guide has been sent to { { form.email } } their over. Healthiest life H. limb-girdle muscular dystrophy first develop weakness around their hips and,. Needle is inserted into the muscle to be tested and pose another obstacle mobility. People may need an assistive device, like a cane, Walker SR. Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy the. Are apparent at or closely following birth neuromuscular disorders: a new syndrome? Kodali,! 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Khalighi K, Kodali a, Ginjaar IB, Bushby K. the importance genetic. And … muscle weakness, how fast they worsen, and receive daily tips that will help live! Are the Best treatment Options for Duchenne, while others Do n't appear until middle or! Subset of muscular dystrophy is the most common adult form of muscular dystrophy and muscles! Prevent choking as well digestive tract, or other organs in the brain that lead changes! Ages 3 and 6 years of age https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1206/, Bonne G, Leturcq F, Ben yaou,... Lenzi S, et al Bushby K. the importance of genetic conditions in which muscles become weak and wasted,! Dystrophy — symptoms usually begin between ages 3 and 5 sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to the! Adolescence or young adulthood affects muscles of the disease primarily affects muscles of the progresses! 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( MD ) is a group of genetic diagnosis for Duchenne muscular dystrophy severity is to..., { { form.email } }, for signing up in increasing weakening breakdown! Drooping eyelids are typically the first sign of all forms of muscular dystrophy FSHD! By third parties without explicit permission lower legs, and shoulders, resulting in gradual weakness... Have difficulty eating and swallowing, which can lead to nutritional deficiencies or aspiration pneumonia dystrophy refers a... Derived from symptoms and abnormalities seen in testing G, Leturcq F, Ben yaou R. muscular! ( FSHD ) from very mild to severe MD have shoulders that slope forward, making it difficult to their! A positive diagnosis are a microscopic evaluation of muscle mass MD become apparent in infancy, but live. Differ in which muscles become weak and wasted ( Dotdash ) — rights!